For whatever reason, bowling became a huge thing in Japan in the 60's, and was at the forefront of arcade technology for installation pieces like the original film-projection version of Nintendo's Duck Hunt. It remains a popular sport to this day, and lead developers KID (Kindle Imagine Develop) to produce this bright, colorful interpretation of 10-pin bowling.
There's also a "golf" mode that does away with the traditional scoring system and presents the player with a series of strange or complex pin configurations, with the goal being to knock 'em all down in as few balls as possible. (Scores in this mode are given as balls above or below par.) Some even resort to a 16-pin setup for additional challenge.